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Are we out of our minds?

Velmans, Max. 2005. Are we out of our minds? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12(6), pp. 109-116. ISSN 1355-8250 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

This paper is a commentary on Rupert Sheldrake’s analysis of theories of perception (in Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2005, 2006). As Sheldrake points out in his fascinating review of ancient and modern thinking on this subject, theories of vision have ranged from “extramissive” theories that posit some active influence emanating from the eyes that both illuminates and influences the external world, “intramissive” theories that stress the influence of the external world on the (passive) brain, and theories in which intramissive and extramissive influences combine. As Sheldrake notes, up to the 12th Century, extramissive theories were dominant, but with an increasing understanding of the way light reflected from an object is focused on the retina by the lens of the eye, intramissive theories have become dominant. Drawing on his research on staring experiments, Sheldrake defends an extramissive theory. In this commentary I argue for a model of perception that combines intramissive and extramissive influences, which accepts all third-person evidence for intramissive causal antecedents to visual perception while at the same time accepting the phenomenal evidence for the apparent external nature of the perceived world—an extramissive psychological effect that I refer to as “perceptual projection”. I also suggest some additions to the model that might begin to make sense of apparently extramissive causes of the type needed to explain staring experiments. Ultimately, I suggest, we may need to accept that we are in our minds, but might be partly out of our brains!

Item Type:

Article

Related URLs:

Departments, Centres and Research Units:

Psychology

Dates:

DateEvent
2005Published

Item ID:

26175

Date Deposited:

10 Apr 2019 13:11

Last Modified:

10 Apr 2019 13:11

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.

URI:

http://research.gold.ac.uk/id/eprint/26175

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