Effective sounds in complex systems: the ARKOLA simulation

Gaver, William; Smith, Randall and O'Shea, Tim. 1991. 'Effective sounds in complex systems: the ARKOLA simulation'. In: CHI '91. New Orleans, United States. [Conference or Workshop Item]

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Abstract or Description

We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our
observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by
providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.

Item Type:

Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Identification Number (DOI):



User-interface design issues; multimedia; auditory output strategies; interface metaphors; group work observational studies

Departments, Centres and Research Units:

Design > Interaction Research Studio



Event Location:

New Orleans, United States

Item ID:


Date Deposited:

29 Nov 2015 21:22

Last Modified:

20 Jun 2017 13:58



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