A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing

Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto and Filippi, Roberto. 2016. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing. Cognition, 150, pp. 119-132. ISSN 0010-0277 [Article]

No full text available

Abstract or Description

Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning.

Item Type:


Identification Number (DOI):



Bilingualism; Metacognition; Mratio; Bilingual advantage

Departments, Centres and Research Units:



30 June 2015Submitted
11 February 2016Accepted
17 February 2016Published Online

Item ID:


Date Deposited:

13 Sep 2016 14:45

Last Modified:

24 Nov 2016 10:53

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.



Edit Record Edit Record (login required)