Constantly connected – The effects of smart-devices on mental health

Harwood, Josh; Dooley, Julian J.; Scott, Adrian J. and Joiner, Richard. 2014. Constantly connected – The effects of smart-devices on mental health. Computers in Human Behavior, 34, pp. 267-272. ISSN 0747-5632 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

A number of studies have demonstrated the mental health implications of excessive Internet-browsing, gaming, texting, emailing, social networking, and phone calling. However, no study to date has investigated the impact of being able to conduct all of these activities on one device. A smart-device (i.e., smart-phone or tablet) allows these activities to be conducted anytime and anywhere, with unknown mental health repercussions. This study investigated the association between smart-device use, smart-device involvement and mental health. Two-hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey comprising demographic questions, questions concerning smart-device use, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, the Internet Addiction Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Higher smart-device involvement was significantly associated with higher levels of depression and stress but not anxiety. However, smart-device use was not significantly associated with depression, anxiety or stress. These findings suggest that it is the nature of the relationship a person has with their smart-device that is predictive of depression and stress, rather than the extent of use.

Item Type:


Identification Number (DOI):


Smart-devices; Smart-phones; Mental health; Depression; Stress; Addiction

Departments, Centres and Research Units:

Psychology > Forensic Psychology Unit


9 February 2014Accepted
6 March 2014Published Online
May 2014Published

Item ID:


Date Deposited:

18 May 2017 14:23

Last Modified:

12 May 2022 15:51

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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