Anosognosia for prospective and retrospective memory deficits: assessment and theoretical considerations

Chapman, Silvia; Beschin, Nicoletta; Cosentino, Stephanie; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Della Sala, Sergio and Cocchini, Gianna. 2019. Anosognosia for prospective and retrospective memory deficits: assessment and theoretical considerations. Neuropsychology, 33(7), pp. 1020-1031. ISSN 0894-4105 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

Objective: Patients who suffer from memory loss following an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) may also suffer from anosognosia, or unawareness of their memory loss. How we define and measure anosognosia can have critical implications for its study and clinical assessment. Commonly used measures often lack standardization and reliability checks for responses. Moreover, these methods rely heavily on cognitive abilities (e.g., language abilities) that are often affected after brain injury. The aim of this study is to elucidate how to best conceptualize and detect anosognosia for memory loss by introducing a new method of assessment, the Visual-Analogue Test for Anosognosia for memory impairment (VATAmem). Methods: A total of 51 patients (M= 61 years; M= 13 years of education) with memory difficulties following ABI were recruited from outpatient clinics. A total of 73 informants were also recruited (M= 51 years old; M= 13 years of education). Both patients and informants evaluated the severity of patients’ everyday memory mistakes on the VATAmem, for prospective and retrospective memory deficits by using visual analogue scales, vignettes and check questions to ensure reliability. Results and conclusion: A total of 30% of the patients were deemed unaware of their memory deficits. Patients were less aware of their prospective (29%) than their retrospective memory difficulties (18%). The new method of assessment provided by the VATAmem reduced possible false positives and enhanced reliability. We conclude that careful consideration of methodology is a key step to interpreting anosognosia findings within a theoretical framework

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"This article may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record."


anosognosia, memory, assessment, acquired brain injury, unawareness

Departments, Centres and Research Units:

Psychology > Centre for Cognition, Computation and Culture (CCCC)


22 April 2019Accepted
20 June 2019Published Online
October 2019Published

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Date Deposited:

29 May 2019 10:57

Last Modified:

09 Jun 2021 12:56

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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