Virtual Creature Morphology - A Review

Lai, Gorm; Leymarie, Frederic Fol; Latham, William; Arita, Takaya and Suzuki, Reiji. 2021. Virtual Creature Morphology - A Review. Computer Graphics Forum, 40(2), pp. 659-681. ISSN 0167-7055 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

We present a review of methods for procedurally generating the morphology of virtual creatures. We include a range of methods,
with the main groups being from ALife over art to video games. Even though at times these groups overlap, for clarity we have
kept this distinction. By including the word virtual, we mean that we focus on methods for simulation in silico, and not physical
robots. We also include a historical perspective, with information on methods such as cellular automata, L-systems and a focus
on earlier pioneers in the field

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Additional Information:

Research Funding: EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Intelligent Games & Game Intelligence (IGGI). Grant Number: EP/L015846/1


Computer Graphics Forum, EUROGRAPHICS, virtual creatures, procedural content generation, pcg, alife, procedural art, generative art

Departments, Centres and Research Units:



8 March 2021Accepted
4 June 2021Published

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Date Deposited:

30 Apr 2021 13:10

Last Modified:

04 Jun 2022 01:26

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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