Symptom variability in depersonalization–derealization disorder: A latent profile analysis

Millman, L.S.M.; Hunter, Elaine C.M.; Orgs, Guido; David, Anthony S. and Terhune, Devin Blair. 2022. Symptom variability in depersonalization–derealization disorder: A latent profile analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 78(4), pp. 637-655. ISSN 0021-9762 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

Depersonalization–derealization disorder (DDD) is characterized by diverse symptomatology overlapping with anxiety and dissociative disorders, but the sources of this variability are poorly understood. This study aims to determine whether symptom heterogeneity is attributable to the presence of latent subgroups.

We applied latent profile analysis to psychometric measures of anxiety, depersonalization–derealization, and dissociation in 303 DDD patients.

The analysis yielded evidence for five discrete subgroups: three of varying severity levels and two moderate-to-severe classes characterized by differential dissociative symptoms. The five classes reliably differed on several nondissociative symptoms, comorbidities, and factors precipitating their diagnosis but did not significantly differ in other symptoms including anxiety.

These results suggest the presence of three distinct DDD subtypes in the upper severity range that are distinguished by differential expression of detachment and compartmentalization symptoms. Further elucidation of these subtypes has potential implications for the etiology, mechanisms, and treatment of DDD.

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Research Funding:
Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths University of London. Grant Number: Departmental PhD Bursary


anxiety, depersonalization–derealization disorder, dissociation, heterogeneity, latent profile analysis

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15 August 2021Accepted
6 September 2021Published Online
April 2022Published

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Date Deposited:

13 Sep 2021 08:41

Last Modified:

06 Sep 2022 01:26

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Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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