One step deeper: gender and congruity in celebrity endorsement

Pradhan, Debasis; Kapoor, Vikram and Moharana, Tapas Ranjan. 2017. One step deeper: gender and congruity in celebrity endorsement. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 35(6), pp. 774-788. ISSN 0263-4503 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of user gender, celebrity gender, and celebrity-user gender congruity on celebrity personality-user personality (CP-UP) congruity, and consequently, brand purchase intention (BPI). Additionally, it delves into the mediating roles of CP-UP congruity and brand personality-celebrity personality (BP-CP) congruity.

A survey research entailing a sample of 709 adult consumers was used to test the framed hypotheses by means of a structural equation modelling.

The results indicate that while celebrity and user gender have a significant positive effect on CP-UP congruity, celebrity-user gender congruity has a negative effect. The study shows a partial mediation of CP-UP congruity in the relationship between gender congruity and BP-CP congruity. Furthermore, BP-CP congruity is shown to have a full mediation effect on the relationship between CP-UP congruity and BPI.

Research limitations/implications
Consistency of the results of this study may be corroborated by employing other methods to estimate congruity scores. Also, the results of the present study may not be generalisable across different product classes with varied consumer involvement.

Practical implications
The findings have major implications for practitioners in understanding the significance of BP-CP congruity among celebrity-user-brand in the formation of purchasing intentions. The results of the study suggest a better CP-UP congruity when the gender of the celebrity is opposite to the gender of the user. This result questions the generalisability of the similarity theory that exhorts a prospect’s customary identification with a spokesperson of her/his own sex and further reinforces the selectivity hypothesis that indicates different information processing of males and females while they make judgements. Therefore, it might be a good idea for advertisers targeting female audiences to employ male celebrities in certain endorsements.

This is the first study that tests for the mediation effect of CP-UP congruity in the relationship between gender congruity and BP-CP congruity, and that of BP-CP congruity in the relationship between CP-UP congruity and BPI.

Item Type:


Identification Number (DOI):


gender, mediation, brand personality, celebrity, brand purchase intention, personality congruity

Departments, Centres and Research Units:

Institute of Management Studies


4 September 2017Published Online
25 September 2017Published

Item ID:


Date Deposited:

10 Feb 2022 12:26

Last Modified:

10 Feb 2022 12:26

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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