Antisemitism is predicted by anti-hierarchical aggression, totalitarianism, and belief in malevolent global conspiracies

Allington, Daniel; Hirsh, David and Katz, Louise. 2023. Antisemitism is predicted by anti-hierarchical aggression, totalitarianism, and belief in malevolent global conspiracies. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 10, 155. ISSN 2662-9992 [Article]

Allington Hirsh Katz.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (768kB) | Preview

Abstract or Description

Two cross-sectional studies were carried out in order to identify predictors of antisemitism, measured using the Generalised Antisemitism or GeAs scale. In the first, which used a self-selecting sample of UK-resident adults (n = 809), age, gender, ethnicity, and educational level as well as a wide range of ideological predictors were analysed as bivariate predictors of antisemitism. In the second, which used a representative sample of UK-resident adults (n = 1853), the same demographic predictors plus the non-demographic predictors found to have the strongest bivariate relationships with Generalised Antisemitism in the previous study were used to construct a linear model with multiple predictors. Ethnicity, support for totalitarian government, belief in malevolent global conspiracies, and anti-hierarchical aggression were identified as the strongest predictors of Generalised Antisemitism. However, support for totalitarian government was only found to predict ‘old’ antisemitic attitudes (measured using the Judeophobic Antisemitism or JpAs subscale) and not ‘new’ antisemitic attitudes (measured using the Antizionist Antisemitism or AzAs subscale), whereas ethnicity, anti-hierarchical aggression, and belief in malevolent global conspiracies were found to predict both ‘old’ and ‘new’ antisemitic attitudes. This finding adds nuance to ongoing debates about whether antisemitism is more prevalent on the political right or left, by suggesting that (at least in the UK) it is instead associated with a conspiracist view of the world, a desire to overturn the social order, and a preference for authoritarian forms of government—all of which may exist on the right, the left, and elsewhere. Data from both samples are open, as is the code used in order to carry out the analyses presented here.

Item Type:


Identification Number (DOI):

Data Access Statement:

Data availability: The datasets generated and analysed during the current study were made available ahead of this article’s publication via the Open Science Framework repository, alongside the code used to generate the analysis presented here, as part of the project ‘Predictors of antisemitism among UK-resident adults’ ( Following this article’s publication, datasets and code may potentially be republished via other platforms, as appropriate.


antisemitism; anti-Semitism; antizionism; anti-Zionism; conspiracy

Related URLs:

Departments, Centres and Research Units:



14 March 2023Accepted
10 April 2023Published

Item ID:


Date Deposited:

02 May 2023 08:24

Last Modified:

02 May 2023 08:24

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


View statistics for this item...

Edit Record Edit Record (login required)