A case study of balance and integration in worth-focused research through design

George, Jennifer. 2016. A case study of balance and integration in worth-focused research through design. Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University [Thesis]

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Abstract or Description

Understandings of, and objectives for, Interaction Design have been extended over the last few decades.

Firstly, a single user-centred focus for Interaction Design is no longer regarded as adequate where any single central focus for design is now questioned. Post-centric approaches such as Balanced, Integrated and Generous (BIG) Design propose to achieve a broadened worth-focused content scope for Interaction Design, where worth is the balance of increasing benefits over reducing costs and generosity of choice.

Secondly, there has been a broadened scope for disciplinary values in Human-Computer Interaction research, with the initial engineering and human science values of User-Centred Design and Human-Computer Interaction now complemented by the rapidly maturing creative field of Research through Design (RtD).

Thirdly, RtD as a form of creative reflective practice does not have a sequential process, but needs parallel activities that can achieve total iteration potential (i.e., no restrictions on iteration sequences). Structured reflective tools such as the Working to Choose Framework may reveal this potential.

An important opportunity remained that a complete challenging case study that integrated these domains (worth-focus) and tools (RtD, structured reflection) was carried out.

The case study addressed the challenging social issues associated with supporting care circles of individuals with disabilities. It is original in completely tracking the combination of RtD with worth-focused Interaction Design, supported by established user-centred practices.

The resulting research has made contributions through the tracking of the RtD process to: worth-focused design and evaluation resources; structured reflection; demonstration of innovative parallel balanced and integrated forms of iteration; and to future social innovation for disability support.

Item Type:

Thesis (Doctoral)


Design arena, abstract design situations, iteration shift, reflection

Departments, Centres and Research Units:



June 2016

Item ID:


Date Deposited:

14 Jul 2023 13:14

Last Modified:

14 Jul 2023 13:34



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