The REED Typology: Understanding Market-Orientation and Instrumental Values in Cultural Policy across Europe

Alexander, Victoria D. and Peterson Gilbert, Oliver. 2023. The REED Typology: Understanding Market-Orientation and Instrumental Values in Cultural Policy across Europe. Cultural Trends, ISSN 0954-8963 [Article] (In Press)

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This article develops a typology of cultural policy in 30 European nation-states, based on the centrality of ‘neoliberal’ market-based rationalities in subsidised cultural fields. This Resistant, Emergent, Established, and Dominant (REED) typology is based on two measures of marketisation, market-orientation and instrumental values, which are found in European ‘cultural policy assemblages’ (networked systems of cultural policies, cultural policymaking bodies, cultural organisations, and cultural intermediaries). We show that all cultural policy assemblages in European nation-states are marketised to some degree, suggesting that Europe is ‘post-marketised’. Further, we find a heterogenous range of marketised practices, showing different instantiations of marketisation across nation-states. REED offers a new prism to conceptualise Europe’s subsidised cultural fields. Grounded in actual policy orientations, it overcomes limitations of earlier typologies and, crucially, it provides both a descriptive modelling of the contemporary European cultural field and an analytical methodology for comparing nation-states relative to marketisation.

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Acknowledgement: This article was produced as part of the project, UNCHARTED: Understanding, Fostering and Capturing the Societal Values of Culture, which received funding under the Horizon 2020 Programme of the European Union (Grant Agreement 870793).


Neoliberalism; Market-orientation; Cultural policy; Policy Justification; Cultural values; Europe; REED typology

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Institute for Cultural and Creative Entrepreneurship (ICCE)


28 July 2023Accepted

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Date Deposited:

02 Aug 2023 08:32

Last Modified:

03 Aug 2023 08:11

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Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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