Addressing Current Issues in Assessing Professional Rapport: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Existing Measures

Brouillard, Celine; Gabbert, Fiona and Scott, Adrian J.. 2024. Addressing Current Issues in Assessing Professional Rapport: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Existing Measures. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 38(3), e4205. ISSN 0888-4080 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

The role of rapport facilitating cooperation and information disclosure has been widely acknowledged by both researchers and practitioners across professional information-gathering contexts. However, the definition and assessment of rapport are still debated, resulting in a lack of reliable and commonly used tools to effectively measure rapport. This review explored how rapport has been measured in professional information-gathering contexts and illustrates key characteristics of published measures in a searchable systematic map. A total of 111 research articles and 126 measures of rapport were evaluated based on standards in scale development and validation. The measures' conceptualisation of rapport was also examined with their individual items being coded for the following theorised components of rapport: (i) paying attention, (ii) personalising the interview/interaction, (iii) being approachable and (iv) establishing a mutual connection. Findings are synthesised and discussed in relation to the overarching patterns found, including limited consistency and validity in current measures of rapport.

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Data Access Statement:

The datasets referred to in the manuscript is available on the open-source framework (OSF) project page:


eyewitness, investigative interviewing, measure, rapport, suspect, systematic review

Departments, Centres and Research Units:

Psychology > Forensic Psychology Unit


29 April 2024Accepted
21 May 2024Published Online
May 2024Published

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Date Deposited:

28 May 2024 14:47

Last Modified:

28 May 2024 14:47

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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