The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte subpopulations at exam time: a controlled study

Naito, Akira; Laidlaw, Tannis M.; Henderson, Don; Farahani, Linda; Dwivedi, Prabudha and Gruzelier, John. 2003. The impact of self-hypnosis and Johrei on lymphocyte subpopulations at exam time: a controlled study. Brain Research Bulletin, 62(3), pp. 241-253. ISSN 03619230 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

n a prospective randomised controlled trial, 48 students were randomly assigned to stress reduction training before exams with self-hypnosis, Johrei or a mock neurofeedback relaxation control. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations and self-reported stress (Perceived Stress Scale) were measured before training and 1–2 months later as exams approached. Absolute number and percentages of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD3−CD56+ Natural Killer cells (NK cells) and NK cell cytotoxic activity was measured from venous blood. Stressed participants showed small but significant declines in both CD3−CD56+ NK cell percentages and NK cell cytotoxic activity levels while CD3+CD4+ T cell percentages increased, changes supported by correlations with perceived stress. The effects of stress were moderated in those who learned Johrei at exam time; 11/12 showed increases in CD3−CD56+ NK cell percentages with decreased percentages of CD3+CD4+ T cells, effects not seen in the relaxation control group. Stress was also buffered in those who learned and practised self-hypnosis in whom CD3−CD56+ NK cell and CD3+CD4+ T cell levels were maintained, and whose CD3+CD8+ T cell percentages, shown previously to decline with exams, increased. The results compliment beneficial effects on mood of self-hypnosis and Johrei. The results are in keeping with beneficial influences of self-hypnosis and provide the first evidence of the suggestive value of the Japanese Johrei procedure for stress reduction, which clearly warrants further investigation.

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Date Deposited:

16 Mar 2011 09:57

Last Modified:

30 Jun 2017 15:27

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Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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