The Goldsmiths Dance Sophistication Index (Gold-DSI): A Psychometric Tool to Assess Individual Differences in Dance Experience

Rose, Dawn; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Lovatt, Peter and Orgs, Guido. 2022. The Goldsmiths Dance Sophistication Index (Gold-DSI): A Psychometric Tool to Assess Individual Differences in Dance Experience. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 16(4), pp. 733-745. ISSN 1931-3896 [Article]

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Abstract or Description

Dance has become an important topic for research in empirical aesthetics, social and motor cognition, and as an intervention for neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite the growing scientific interest in dance, no standardised psychometric instrument exists to assess people’s dance experience. Here, we introduce the Goldsmiths Dance Sophistication Index (Gold-DSI), a 26-item questionnaire to measure individual differences in participatory and observational dance experience on a continuous scale. The Gold-DSI was developed in three stages: In the first stage a set of 76 items was generated by adapting questions from the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Müllensiefen et al., 2014), and as part of a stakeholder workshop using a grounded theory approach. The second stage focused on item reduction. Using a large-scale online survey (N=424) , hierarchical factor analysis was used to fit a model comprising of one general and six secondary factors (28 items in total). In stage three, six new items were added to specifically capture individual differences in dance observation. We then collected data from two samples for final model estimation (N=127) and evaluation (N=190). The final version of the Gold-DSI comprises 26 items; 20 items relate to one general factor that captures experience in dance participation. This includes four secondary factors: Body Awareness, Social Dancing, Urge to Dance, and Dance Training. A further six items separately measure experience in dance observation. In sum, the Gold-DSI provides a brief, standardised and continuous assessment of doing, watching and knowing about dance.

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Funding: This study was partially supported by an Early Career Research Grant from the University of Hertfordshire awarded to Dawn Rose and an ESRC transformative research grant on “Synchronous Movement, Cooperation and the Performing Arts” (ES/M000680/2) awarded to Guido Orgs.

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Dance, Expertise, Questionnaire, Individual differences, Psychometrics

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31 August 2020Accepted
29 October 2020Published Online

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29 Sep 2020 11:34

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12 Jan 2023 12:27

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Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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