Nationality and ethnicity-based (cyber)bullying: how should we tackle this phenomenon in survey studies?

Pyżalski, Jacek and Smith, Peter K.. 2022. Nationality and ethnicity-based (cyber)bullying: how should we tackle this phenomenon in survey studies? Psychology, Society & Education, 14(3), pp. 11-17. ISSN 1989-709X [Article]

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Abstract or Description

Nationality and ethnicity-based (cyber)bullying (NEBB) is generally understood as peer violence where the issues of nationality and ethnicity of the actors involved (mostly targets and perpetrators) come into play. Although central for this kind of bullying, the national, ethnic and cultural differences are not the only aspects that should be included in NEBB definition and measurement approach. Closer analysis of how specifically they may be involved and impact the dynamics and phenomenology of peer aggression suggests the need for establishing a set of criteria that may be implemented into operationalization strategies. This theoretical text presents the different level criteria that may be used for analysing and typologizing the phenomenon of NEBB. These include both behavioral and formal characteristics of hostile behaviours as well as specific issues concerning nationality and ethnicity of bullying actors and racist/nationalistic content. Then the impact of how aspects of the proposed criteria should be present in survey tools is discussed, in order to fully measure the specific types of nationality and ethnicity based bullying. Also the rationale is presented for including contextual aspects in both measurement strategies and interpretation of the results.

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The cooperation to write this text was organized within the framework of COST Action 18115 TRIBES: Transnational Collaboration on Bullying, Migration and Integration at School Level.


Prejudice-based bullying, Bias bullying, Peer violence, Racism, Ethnicity, Discrimination

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14 November 2022Accepted
30 November 2022Published

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Date Deposited:

25 Oct 2023 10:23

Last Modified:

25 Oct 2023 10:27

Peer Reviewed:

Yes, this version has been peer-reviewed.


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